design for lifetime & sharing
Goal: Brainstorm business models to turn your product into a service.
Often the best way to reduce material use overall is not to lightweight your product, but to get more service out of it. For example, a product gets used ten times as much during its lifetime, it uses 1/10th as much material per unit service (meanwhile the best engineer might be lucky to reduce material use 10–30% through lightweighting). This increase in service can happen either by the product lasting longer (being used by the same person for ten times as long), by the product being shared (lasting the same time, but being used by ten times as many people), or a combination of both. However, such design changes require new business models in order to be viable. How do ten people share the product? When do they pay, how do they get access, etc.? Or if your products last ten times as long, how do you stay in business?
With a longer product life, you might charge more, or add profitable upgrade, repair, and maintenance services. You might also change the business model: perhaps you own the product instead of the user, and charge subscription fees for use rather than a one-time purchase that may happen every 2 years. A similar business model also works for sharing the product across many people. If none of these are possible, you might at least use a business model that takes back old products and remanufactures them, or reuses material. Then you can design your products to enable these better lifetimes.
Design for Lifetime
Designing for product lifetime can mean designing for a long life, designing for a good afterlife (disassembly and recycling), or designing for repair and upgrade. See the videos below for details:
Autodesk Sustainability Workshop Introduction to Design for Lifetime
Autodesk Sustainability Workshop Design for Durability
Autodesk Sustainability Workshop Design for Disassembly and Recycling
Autodesk Sustainability Workshop Design for Repair and Upgrade
You can also download the Autodesk Quick Reference Guide.
Why we throw things away. Image Source: Eternally Yours Foundation, via Okala Practitioner
Here are more resources on design for lifetime:
- Natural Capitalism (Hawken, Lovins, and Lovins), chapters 4 and 7. These chapters describe manufacturing optimization, the importance of measuring to find opportunities, design for service, and designing for circular material flows.
- Eternally Yours: Time in Design by Ed Van Hinte. This book describes how to design for long life in terms of aesthetics, culture, and flexibility.
- The Maker’s Bill of Rights manifesto by Make magazine. This short list of demands is a good reference for how to design for repair and upgrade.
- Bloom Laptop for Disassembly and Recycling Final Report. This student project from Stanford University is an example of how a laptop can be designed for disassembly, repair, upgrade, and recycling.
Designing for lifetime can be more expensive; one way you can make more money while also saving your customers money is to design for sharing. This changes not just the product design, but the business model.
Design for Sharing: Product Service Systems
As mentioned above, sharing a product among ten people can reduce its material impacts per person by 90%. Product service systems redesign the product (and, more importantly, its business model) for sharing. There are many ways of doing this; click on the graphic below for a summary.
Designing product service systems is a deep field of study—you can even get a masters degree in it from Blekinge Institute of Technology. Another reference with more business model detail is Promoting Innovative Business Models with Environmental Benefits by the EU Commission, especially section 5.2 “Business Rationale” (pp.29-31) and section 7, “Realizing PSS” (pp.39-46).
Barriers to product service systems and how to overcome them, from the EU Commission paper above.